Representative Action
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Representative Proceedings | A Low Bar to the “Same Interest” Requirement?

In Commission Recovery Ltd v Marks & Clerk LLP & Anor [2024] EWCA Civ 9, the Court of Appeal handed down one of its first decisions concerning representative proceedings following the landmark Supreme Court decision in Lloyd v Google. The Court of Appeal upheld the High Court’s decision at first instance and allowed a representative proceeding under CPR 19.8(2) to proceed, but also identified several issues that it noted will require careful case management in the future.

The underlying proceedings concern current and former clients of the two defendant firms, Marks & Clerk LLP (M&C), and its associated firm, Long Acre Renewals (LAC), alleging that those firms received secret commissions for referring clients of M&C to a third party. They allege that M&C and LAC are liable to account for the amount of those commissions. A special purpose vehicle, Commission Recovery Ltd (CRL), was incorporated for the purposes of bringing the proceedings and took an assignment of a claim from one of M&C’s clients, Bambach Europe. CRL is the representative claimant in the action.

Representative Actions under English Law

Under CPR 19.8, a Claimant can bring a claim on behalf of other persons where they have the “same interest” in

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The New Representative Action in Italy

A new kind of class action has been introduced to the Italian legal system. Legislative Decree No 28 of March 10, 2023, transposing EU Directive No 1828/2020, has introduced the so-called “Representative Action”. The provisions applied as of June 25, 2023 with respect to violations occurring after application date.

The main features of this new class action are as follows:

Scope: the new representative action is intended to protect the collective interests of consumers, i.e., those arising from violations of EU regulations and directives expressly listed in Annex II-septies of the Decree and include product liability, unfair terms in consumer contracts, consumer price indications, e-commerce, personal data protection, unfair commercial practices, and misleading advertising.

Plaintiffs: the representative action can be brought only by EU representative associations included on the list held by the EU Commission, or domestic associations on the list held by the Ministry of Enterprises and Made in Italy and the independent public bodies named in EU Regulation 2017/2394.

Defendants: The representative action can be brought against any natural person or legal entity, public or private, including one acting through another entity, for purposes relating to its commercial, entrepreneurial, or professional business activity.

Territorial scope: for infringements of

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